Deep learning, as one of the most currently remarkable machine learning techniques, has achieved great success in many applications such as image analysis, speech recognition and text understanding. It uses supervised and unsupervised strategies to learn multi-level representations and features in hierarchical architectures for the tasks of classification and pattern recognition. Recent development in sensor networks and communication technologies has enabled the collection of big data. Although big data provides great opportunities for a broad of areas including e-commerce, industrial control and smart medical, it poses many challenging issues on data mining and information processing due to its characteristics of large volume, large variety, large velocity and large veracity. In the past few years, deep learning has played an important role in big data analytic solutions. In this paper, we review the emerging researches of deep learning models for big data feature learning. Furthermore, we point out the remaining challenges of big data deep learning and discuss the future topics.
Currently, the network traffic control systems are mainly composed of the Internet core and wired/wireless heterogeneous backbone networks. Recently, these packet-switched systems are experiencing an explosive network traffic growth due to the rapid development of communication technologies. The existing network policies are not sophisticated enough to cope with the continually varying network conditions arising from the tremendous traffic growth. Deep learning, with the recent breakthrough in the machine learning/intelligence area, appears to be a viable approach for the network operators to configure and manage their networks in a more intelligent and autonomous fashion. While deep learning has received a significant research attention in a number of other domains such as computer vision, speech recognition, robotics, and so forth, its applications in network traffic control systems are relatively recent and garnered rather little attention. In this paper, we address this point and indicate the necessity of surveying the scattered works on deep learning applications for various network traffic control aspects. In this vein, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art deep learning architectures and algorithms relevant to the network traffic control systems. Also, we discuss the deep learning enablers for network systems. In addition, we discuss, in detail, a new use case, i.e., deep learning based intelligent routing. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the deep learning-based routing approach in contrast with the conventional routing strategy. Furthermore, we discuss a number of open research issues, which researchers may find useful in the future.
Recently, deep learning, an emerging machine learning technique, is garnering a lot of research attention in several computer science areas. However, to the best of our knowledge, its application to improve heterogeneous network traffic control (which is an important and challenging area by its own merit) has yet to appear because of the difficult challenge in characterizing the appropriate input and output patterns for a deep learning system to correctly reflect the highly dynamic nature of large-scale heterogeneous networks. In this vein, in this article, we propose appropriate input and output characterizations of heterogeneous network traffic and propose a supervised deep neural network system. We describe how our proposed system works and how it differs from traditional neural networks. Also, preliminary results are reported that demonstrate the encouraging performance of our proposed deep learning system compared to a benchmark routing strategy (Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)) in terms of significantly better signaling overhead, throughput, and delay.
To improve the efficiency of big data feature learning, the paper proposes a privacy preserving deep computation model by offloading the expensive operations to the cloud. Privacy concerns become evident because there are a large number of private data by various applications in the smart city, such as sensitive data of governments or proprietary information of enterprises. To protect the private data, the proposed model uses the BGV encryption scheme to encrypt the private data and employs cloud servers to perform the high-order back-propagation algorithm on the encrypted data efficiently for deep computation model training. Furthermore, the proposed scheme approximates the Sigmoid function as a polynomial function to support the secure computation of the activation function with the BGV encryption. In our scheme, only the encryption operations and the decryption operations are performed by the client while all the computation tasks are performed on the cloud. Experimental results show that our scheme is improved by approximately 2.5 times in the training efficiency compared to the conventional deep computation model without disclosing the private data using the cloud computing including ten nodes. More importantly, our scheme is highly scalable by employing more cloud servers, which is particularly suitable for big data.
Automatic modulation recognition (AMR) is an essential and challenging topic in the development of the cognitive radio (CR), and it is a cornerstone of CR adaptive modulation and demodulation capabilities to sense and learn environments and make corresponding adjustments. AMR is essentially a classification problem, and deep learning achieves outstanding performances in various classification tasks. So, this paper proposes a deep learning-based method, combined with two convolutional neural networks (CNNs) trained on different datasets, to achieve higher accuracy AMR. A CNN is trained on samples composed of in-phase and quadrature component signals, otherwise known as in-phase and quadrature samples, to distinguish modulation modes, that are relatively easy to identify. We adopt dropout instead of pooling operation to achieve higher recognition accuracy. A CNN based on constellation diagrams is also designed to recognize modulation modes that are difficult to distinguish in the former CNN, such as 16 quadratic-amplitude modulation (QAM) and 64 QAM, demonstrating the ability to classify QAM signals even in scenarios with a low signal-to-noise ratio.